Vilibic-Cavlek et al.
Emerging and neglected viruses of zoonotic importance in Croatia.
Pathogens. 2021; 10: 73,

Several arboviruses have emerged in Croatia in recent years, among which are Dengue virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), and Toscana virus. While Toscana virus infections are reported from littoral regions, WNV, USUV, and TBE virus infections mostly occur in continental counties in north-western, northern, and north-eastern Croatia, where TBE endemicity is high and reaches an incidence from 3.61-6.78 per 100,000 inhabitants. Outbreaks after consumption of non-pasteurized goat milk and milk products have also been reported.

The number of reported TBE cases ranged from 6 cases in 2016 up to 45 in 2012. Seroprevalence (IgG antibodies) in forestry workers from the Croatian central Posavina (Sava River Basin) was 4.41% in 2011. A seroprevalence study conducted in 2016 showed TBE IgG antibodies in 3.65% of dogs in eastern Croatia. TBE cases have been reported from April to November (from 2017 to 2020) with a maximum in May, June, and July.

Genetic analyses of TBE virus strains isolated from red foxes, red deer, Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus ticks, and from a patient showed that virus isolates from Croatia belong to the European subtype.

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